Chili is universally known for its spicy taste. People are in a situation where they cannot eat non-spicy food. Chili came to India only in the 17th century. Before that we used black pepper for seasoning. Chili gives taste, smell and color to edible food we make. Chilli (Capsicum) is one of the most important vegetable crops. It is also called milakai and molakai in Tamil rural areas. It belongs to the plant family Solanaceae.

There are less than 10 species of pepper. But more than 50000 varieties are cultivated worldwide. There are also large chillies ranging from very small to 250 grams in weight. Chillies are available in different colors like red, yellow, green, white, purple, black. Apart from that, chillies are also available in various forms. From mild sweet chilies to very, very spicy chilies are cultivated. Some types of chili plants are grown indoors only for beauty. The surprising news is that there are wine-flavored chilies and ghee-smelling chilies.

Capsaicin is a chemical that gives chili peppers their pungency. It is an irritant to all mammals, including humans. Produces a sensation of irritation on any tissue. The spiciest part of chili is its seeds.

The Scoville heat units (SHU) method is used to determine the level of spicy taste in food items. This is called the Scoville scale. They measure the alkalinity of chillies and peppers in this way. Wilbur Scoville (1865-1942), an American scientist, measured the alkalinity in chilies in 1912. He added an unknown amount of sugar water to the chilli juice. Then he determined the amount of alkali with the amount of sugar water. It is called the Scoville scale. Currently, high performance liquid chromatography is used to measure alkali more accurately.

Chili also has a sweet taste. That is, alkalinity ranging from 0 to 1000 on the Scoville scale is called sweet. You can eat it as it is. Bell pepper, pimento, sweet banana, mexi bell pepper, and cherry chili are belongs to sweet chillies.

If the alkalinity is between 1000 and 3000, it is a moderately alkaline type of chili. Ancho, Pasilla, Espanola, Sandia, Cascabel etc. belong to this category. Alkalinity between 3000 and 6000 is called medium alkalinity. Examples of this include jalapeno and mirosol chilies.

Alkalinity between 5000 and 100000 is called spicy chili. Examples of hot chili peppers include serrano, cayenne, tabasco, piquin, and Thai chilies. Above this 100,000 to 300,000 alkalinity are called extra alkaline chilies. Habanero and Scotch Bonnet are extremely spicy peppers.

They are constantly discovering the hottest chilies in the world. High alkalinity is above 10 lakh scoville units. The hottest chili in the world is changing. Every year more and more spicy chilies are discovered.

The world's most alkaline chili varieties have been listed since the 1990s. In 2011, Bhut Jolokia was selected as the world's most spicy chili. Its alkalinity was over one million. It has a spicy capacity of 10 lakh 41 thousand 427 units (1,041,427). Never before has any chili reached this level of spiciness. So this chili got a place in the Guinness Book of Records. This chili is grown in the Indian state of Assam

It is cultivated in parts of Assam, Manipur, Nagaland and Bangladesh. In 2012, Trinidad's Moruga Scorpion chili was awarded the title of the hottest chili in the world. It is called Ghee chili.  Since then, from 2013 to 2019, Carolina Reaper has held the record for the hottest chili in the world.

Top 10 Hottest Chillies in the World:

Carolina Reaper – 2,200,000 SHU According to Guinness World Records, this is the hottest chili in the world.
Trinidad Moruga Scorpion – 2,009,231 SHU
7 Pot Douglah – 1,853,936 SHU
7 Pot Primo – 1,469,000,SHU
Trinidad Scorpion “Butch T” – 1,463,700 SHU
Naga Viper – 1,349,000 SHU
Ghost Pepper (Bhut Jolokia) – 1,041,427 SHU
7 Pot Barrackpore – 10,00,000 SHU
7 Pot Red (Giant) – 10,00,000 SHU
Red Savina Habanero (Red Savina Habanero) – 500,000 SHU

The Trinidad moruga scorpion pepper has a ghee aroma. Adding a pinch of chilli to cooking will give the ghee aroma to the dish. That's why it got the name ghee chili. This chilli is grown in hilly regions like Yercaud, Ooty, Kodaikanal, Coonoor and Munnar of Indian areas. It is a cultivar of Trinidad Moruga Scorpion developed from Capsicum chinense. This ghee chilli is native to the islands of Trinidad and Tobago near the United States. It was first discovered here in Moruga district. That is why it was named Trinidad Moruga Scorpion. After that it spread all over the world for its alkaline nature and ghee smell.

This chili plant grows to a height of 4 to 5 feet. It will begin to bear fruit in three months. The flower is white in color. Chillies turn red when ripe. It contains vitamin C and a small amount of carotene. One plant can yield 1 to 3 kg of chillies. It gives good yield during rainy season. Fruiting is less in summer. Its lifespan is 2-3 years.

They take pride in growing ghee chili plants at home. It is used on the basis of one kilogram of dal per chilli. A small piece of chili is enough to make coconut chutney. Coconut chutney is amazing with ghee aroma. The alkalinity of ghee is 2009231 Scoville units. It ranks second globally in alkalinity. It is highly alkaline and is used as a cure for cancer.

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi warned about Bhut Jolokia chili variety on his Twitter page a few days ago and said that "only those who have eaten it know its spiciness". Due to this there has been interest in that chili variety.  

Many people tremble with fear at the sight of "Bhut Jolokia" chilli grown in the state of Nagaland. Because its name is ghost chili. Also, what happens if a demon is possessed by one's body while eating this chili? They will crack like that and go away. Hence this chilli is called “King Mircha” or “Ghost Mircha”.

Bhut Jolokia is one of the spiciest chilies in the world. The people of Nagaland are still talking about the incident of an American who ate this chili and fell to the ground due to pain in his chest. And the American's gastrointestinal tract is filled with chili flakes about an inch long.

The journal of emergeny medicine published an article about this and also pointed out that the alkalinity of Bhut Jolokia pepper is high. This is why Bhut Jolokia chillies are also known as “ghost chillies”.

These chillies are currently being exported to London. In addition, this chili powder will be sold in London. It is also worth noting that Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi has tweeted a warning about this on his Twitter page.

According to historical information, it was the Portuguese who introduced the Chilli to India. But botanists are predicting that this Bhut Jolokia chilli variety grown in Nagaland must have existed in India before that.

This monstrous chilli is considered to be one of the 5 hottest chillies in the world. And its alkalinity is predicted to be 1 million SHU. Think what will happen to our intestines if we eat so many spicy ghost chilies?